Trim the chicken thighs of any scraggy bits of fat to make them neat. Quarter the shallots lengthways.
Heat the oil in a shallow ovenproof pan that is large enough to hold the thighs snugly in a single layer. Quickly brown the chicken on both sides over a medium-high heat – you don’t want to cook them through, just get some colour. Remove the thighs and put them on to a plate. Pour off all but 1 tbsp of the fat from the pan (I use the excess to sauté onions for an accompanying pilaff). Add the shallots to the pan and cook for about three minutes to colour these as well, then add three of the garlic cloves, the chilli flakes and the anchovies. Turn the heat right down and cook for a further four minutes or so, pressing the anchovies with the back of a wooden spoon to help them “melt” (they just disintegrate).
Preheat the oven to 180°C/ 350°F/gas mark 4. Add the rosemary, wine and lemon juice to the pan and bring to the boil. Remove from the heat. Lay the chicken thighs skin-side up on top of the shallots, adding any juices that have come out of the chicken, and cook uncovered for 25 minutes. To check that the chicken is cooked through, pierce one of the pieces near the bone – the juice that runs out should be clear, not pink. Taste for seasoning. The chilli and anchovies should provide enough, but just make sure. Chop the reserved garlic with the lemon zest and sprinkle over the top
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