Bring a large pot of lightly salted water to a boil. Cook the bow tie pasta at a boil, stirring occasionally, until cooked through yet firm to the bite (~12 min.); drain.
Whisk olive oil, lime juice, cilantro, garlic powder, cumin, ground chile pepper, cayenne pepper, salt, and black pepper together in a large bowl. Stir corn, black beans, diced tomatoes and green chiles, and green onions into the dressing to coat. Gently mix avocados into bean mixture; fold bow tie pasta into the salad. Cover salad with plastic wrap and refrigerate 30 minutes before serving.